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What do you know about pests and pesticides?


What do you know about pests and pesticides?

PEST :


 The word pest is derived from a  French word ‘Peste’ and Latin term ‘Pestis’ which maens plague or infectious disease
Definitions of pest:

Pesticide is such name of collection of different substances for the killing ,reducing,preventing or repelling  of many type of pests.
Pest is an animal which is poisonous, vicious or worrying to human or his related members.
A pest is an organism which crop up at a greater number and clash with human benefits, ease and earnings.
A pest is such organism which troubles human or his material goods considerably.
 Insects are also pests at that time when they can be seen in large number  for the occurrence of economic loss.
Example of pests:

Some common pests are given as follows:
Pests take account to  insects, nematodes, mites, snails, slugs, etc. and vertebrates like rats, birds, etc.

From the term of importance of pest, pests may be agricultural forest, household, medical, aesthetic and veterinary pests.
Classes Of Pests :
Pests which are according to their occurrence  classified as below:
Regular pest:
Defination of regular pest:
Regular pests occur at a greate r rate in the fields and all of them have have close association with each other .
Exampleof regular pest:
Examples  of regular pests are given as follows:
Ricer slum borer, Brinjal fruit borer  are the example of  Irregular pests  all of them are seen in rare cases which have no close association with each other like Rice case worm, Mango stem borer.

Seasonal pest:
Definition of  Seasonal pest:
Seasonal pests can be defined as follows:
Seasonal pests are those pests which can be seen in special season at a particular time in every year or season.
Example of  Seasonal pest:
Example of seasonal pests are given as follows:
Red hairy caterpillar on groundnut and  Mango hoppers
Persistent pests:
Definition of Persistent pests:
Persistent paste can be defined as follows:
Persistent pests are those type of pest which can be seen through the year and these pests are difficult to control.
Example of Persistent pest:
Here are some persistent pests which are given as follows:
Chili thrips, mealy bug on guava.

Sporadic pests:
What are Sporadic pests?
Pest occurs in isolated localities during some period.
Example of Sporadic pests:
Coconut slug caterpillar
Classification on Height of plague:


 Pest epidemic:
Sudden outbreak of a pest in a intense form in a place at a particular time e. G. Bph in tanjore, rhc in madurai, pollachi

Endemic Pest: i
 Definition of Endemic Pest:
Incidence of the pest in a low stage in few pockets, frequently and restrained to precise area
Exampleof Endemic Pest:



For example:
Rice gall midge in Madurai, mango hoppers in periyakulam.
Parameters of insect population levels :
There are following parameters for insect population level:
General equilibrium position (GEP):
 The common density of a population over an extended time frame, round which the pest populace over a protracted period of time, around which the pest population tends to vary due to biotic and abiotic factors and within the absence of permanent environmental adjustments.
Economic threshold level (ETL) :
Populace density at which manage measure need to be applied to prevent an increasing pest populace from attaining the etl.
Economic injury level (EIL):
The minimum population density which is the main cause of economic damage.
Damage boundary (DB) :
The lowest damaged level which can be measured.
ETL value remains minimum as compared to EIL which gives  some time for control measures.



Introduction:
Before earlier times of 2000 BC pesticides are used for the protection of fields by some human resources.

First pesticide:
 First known pesticides was found as dusting of elemental sulfur which was used in earlier times about  4500 years ago in prehistoric Mesopotamia. The Rig Veda, which is about  4,000 years ago old mentions the utilization of some toxic plants for the management of pests. Now a days agriculture  employs  many chemical compounds  for the improvement of yield of crops and protection of same.
Synthetic fertilizers:




Synthetic fertilizers are those fertilizers which are used for the increasing of soil fertility used for the increasing of soil fertility and for better varieties production. These healthy chemicals are introduced to the soil to fulfill the requirements of important minerals for the purpose of extra chemical providing which are necessary for the maintenance of high yield crops. Developmental process of a plant is modified by adding plant growth  regulators (PGR) between the practice of agriculture and in the experiments of plant tissue . (PGR) are needed in growth of plant while studying of plant.
Growth regulators:
Number of growth regulators such as malic hydrazide, methyl ester of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) prolong storage.
Weedicides:
Some  others like 2,4-D and 2, 4, 5-T put a stop to early fruit drop and are broadly used as weedicides. Ethylene induces early ripening of fruits.
Physiological effects of growth regulators:
Some physiological effects of growth regulators are rooting of stem cuttings, enhanced vegetative growth, prevention of flowering etc.
Agricultural vegetation are mainly destroyed by way of insects. Various types of fungi and bacteria cause sicknesses in plant life. Consistent with an estimate, there's an annual lack of as much as 30% in agricultural production because of insect pests and plant diseases. If best 50% of this loss will be stored from pests, the food hassle of our usa may be solved to a exceptional extent.

Classes Of Pesticides:

The success of  Green Revolution in expanding the process of providing but this process was not providing food which was  thought enough for the human population growing at a greater rate. Greater yields are the result of usage of better usage of good varieties of crops , but on the other hand this is due to the good practice of management and usage of of agrochemicals  for example fertilizers and pesticides.  There are many kinds of pesticides which depends upon the tyapest which is killed or  which is controlled. They're herbicides, weedicides, nematicides, rodenticides, insecticides, and biopesticides.
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